Photography and What is Depth of Field

Over the last few months, many of my friends have asked me: ‘How do you make your backgrounds blurry?’. To answer this question I will need to explain what is called Depth of Field in the photographic world. Before I can explain more about the way the depth of field works. I need to explain what your camera uses to work out the correct exposure for each photograph you take. All camera’s whether they are point and shoot, to mirrorless camera’s, to your lower end DSLR‘s and then to your professional DSLR. They all use Aperture, Shutter speed and ISO.

ISO stands for Internation Standards Organisation and has been used for many years as a way of identifying the light Sensitivity and the image sensor behind your camera shutter curtain. For photographers, the ISO key standard is Film Speed ratings. In the past, this was known as ASA or the American Standards Association. The aperture, the shutter speed and the ISO all make up the exposure triangle.

DSC_7867

Fig 1.1

In the image above, I was using a new lens, an AF-S Nikkor 50mm 1.8G. Because I need more space to make sure all of the house was in my visual range, I had to move back almost 100m from the front door. As a result of moving so far back, the trees are seen to be interfering with my photograph. I was using the 50mm prime lens for most of my photographs and I needed to use this lens to illustrate how Depth of Field works when using this lens as it has a large open ‘Aperture’ of ƒ/1.8. The ‘ƒ’ means focal ratio and is also known as the ‘F-stop’, is also referred to as the F-ratio in relation to size the aperture opening. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-number

Photography and What is Depth of Field

What is Depth of Field? Basically, Depth of Field is the distance from the camera to the object/subject to the background. The best way to demonstrate how you can use your camera to for the best Depth of Field results is to have a steady hand or use a tripod. I use Aperture priority mode as the camera will automatically set your shutter speed for you. You can use manual mode if you wish, but I find using ‘Aperture Priority’ mode is the best way of the camera make the hard choices for you.

Decisions decisions: Now you have to decide if you want your background totally blurred or in focus. If you wish to have your background blurred, you will need to open your ‘Aperture’, to either the largest setting (in the case of the 50mm prime and depending if you have the ƒ/1.4 lens or the ƒ/1.8G Lens like I have). If it is a sunny day, your camera will automatically raise the shutter speed to the highest available shutter speed in order to compensate for a lot of light hitting the light sensor. If you are wanting all of your background to be in focus and sharp, you will need to close your ‘Aperture’ to around ƒ/11 to ƒ/16. Depending on the camera and how much available light you have outside, the camera will lower you shutter speed considerably, so the camera can capture what it thinks the best result for your photograph. If you have cloudy skies but very good visibility, you can maintain a reasonably high shutter speed with a small aperture size. Anything above 1/50th of a second and you reduce the chance of camera shake or a totally blurred photograph if you are holding your camera in your hands. Any shutter speed slower than 1/45th of a second and your photographs will start to become too blurry to recognise any features details without the use of a sturdy tripod.

Another way of thinking about your ‘Aperture’ works and acquiring the desired photographic result, is to think about your eyes work and how your pupils open more at night time when there is less light. When during the daytime, how your pupils close when looking at direct sunlight. Which is dangerous and I would never advise anyone to look directly at the sun. But you catch my meaning.

Demonstrating and Practicing Depth of Field

Using Fig 1.2 below:

From Left to Right:

1. I widened my aperture all the way up to 1.8 and kept my camera on aperture priority. The camera will then works out the shutter speed for you, so you don’t have to.

2. In the second image, I adjusted my aperture to ƒ/2.4. The background is becoming less blurred and so are some of the railings around the centre.

3. The aperture was increased to ƒ/3.3 and the background is gradually coming into focus. The railings either side of the centre is also coming into focus.

4. The aperture at ƒ/4.8 and more and more features coming gradually into focus. Nearly all of the railing posts are nearly all in focus.

5. The aperture at ƒ/6.7 and nearly all of the railings are in focus. The furthest railings are still out of focus due to the distance from the centre. The background is still blurred but you can work out more details in the background.

6 to 8. Aperture has been increased all the way up to ƒ/16 and the closest railings are now crisp and clearly in focus. The trees in the background are still slightly blurry but only very slightly. If you look at my shutter speed for no#8, you will see that I am at 1/15 of a second.

The smaller the aperture becomes, the camera will need to compensate with the shutter speed to make sure nearly all the details are in as much focus as possible.

Photography and What is Depth of Field - Depth-Of-Field-Railings

Fig 1.2

While I was walking around miniature train tracks, I came across a funny looking tree stump as seen in Fig 1.3 below. I set up my tripod and kept the camera on aperture priority. I moved my focus point to the tree stump and the background was totally blurred out. I had my aperture on its maximum opening of ƒ/1.8. The camera chose my shutter speeds for me automatically.

Photography and What is Depth of Field - Tree-Stump-DOF

Fig 1.3

In Fig 1.3, this image demonstrates how ‘Depth of Field’ works in same way as in Fig 1.2 but using a different subject. The tree stump is the subject of my focus and the train tracks and the tree line is a part of the background. Without having to move the camera or the tripod, I can instead move my focus point on either the tree stump of the background. Remember what I said about the aperture size and the amount of light coming into the camera. Because I opened up the aperture all the way up to ƒ/1.8. I have the maximum amount of light hitting my image sensor. The shutter speed was set automatically or selected by the camera to 1/500th of a second (or 1/500’s). My camera focal point was set to the tree stump making the entire background completely blurred out. This is because my aperture is now fully open and my shutter speed will automatically compensate for the maximum opened aperture. Because my camera is closer to the tree stump than the Railway tracks, my field of view is more narrow, making all of the back ground totally out of focus. There is simply too much light for the camera to cope and it can’t sharpen on the background for now. Even if my shutter speed was under manual control and I slowed the shutter speed down, the photograph would then be over exposed. Letting the camera automatically choose my shutter speed is the best option while in the Aperture Priority Mode (A:= Nikon/Av:= Canon Mode).

For the second part of the exercise, I set my focal point to the tracks. The camera’s shutter speed jumped to 1/1000th of a second. In the lower part of fig 1.3, the tree stump is now blurred and although it is recognisable, the tree stump is outside of the focal range. My focal range is still the same but it has shifted, so instead of the tree stump being in my focal range. My focal range is now in front of the tree stump, so everything in front of the tree stump out of focus and now totally blurry.

Depth of Field Diagram

Let’s use another image to demonstrate how the focal range changes depending upon how much your aperture is open or closed.

Depth-of-Field-Diagram

Fig 1.4

In Fig 1.4, I have drawn a small diagram to illustrate how Depth of Field works with the aperture and the focal range, between camera to the central focal point then to the background.

No#1 of Fig 1.4  shows camera position to the focus point (in the middle) and then to the background. The shaded area’s before and behind the focus points, will be the areas which are the clearest and sharpest, as seen through the lens after the photograph is taken.

No#2 represents how the Aperture is opened almost the it’s maximum. The focal range will be more shallow and so everything before and after the subject is less likely to be sharp. The background is also less likely to be sharp while still being blurry, with no identifiable features. This is what happens when your ‘Aperture’ is opened all the way up to ƒ/1.8. No#3 is meant to illustrate the aperture being closed, so everything before and after the central focus point will come into focus, with more of the background also becoming more clear and sharp.

No#3 is meant to illustrate the aperture being closed, so everything before and after the central focus point will come into focus, with more of the background also becoming more clear and sharp.

I have done the best I can to explain and illustrate Depth of Field in the best lamens terms as possible. The best way to learn of ‘Depth of Field’, is to go out and practice for yourself. That is the way I learned, by opening up my ‘Aperture‘ to ƒ/1.8, then closing the ‘Aperture’ right down to ƒ/16 on my 50mm prime lens. There are other lenses which will help, like the 24-70mm ƒ/2.8G lens and the 70-200mm ƒ/2.8G VR. These lenses can open their aperture fairly wide and they are good for portrait and landscape photography.

Please ‘Like‘ and ‘Comment‘ below.

John Milnes

Have you read my other posts: Beets Blu PagerTag and HR Monitor | Zootopia aka Zootroplis | Joseph and the Technicolored Dreamcoat

 

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36 Comments

  1. April 27, 2016 / 4:17 pm

    My husband gave me an entry Canon DSLR for Christmas and I have yet to really learn how to use it. Most times I just use the manual mode. Haven’t really had the time to play with it. Must do with your blog-post open right in front of me 😉 Maybe I ought to print this? 😉

    • May 2, 2016 / 2:29 pm

      If it helps, go ahead and print the post. I wrote the post as I have had a few people asking how to blur out the backgrounds etc.

      I am glad I was able to help with this post.

      John M

  2. April 27, 2016 / 6:20 pm

    An interssting read love ur photos

    • May 2, 2016 / 2:30 pm

      Thank you, I am glad you enjoyed the post.

      John M.

    • April 28, 2016 / 4:10 pm

      It has taken me awhile to approach this subject due to the lens I needed. They are not always cheap and don’t grow on trees. So Had to save for some time to get the lens which would help me with this post.

      John

  3. April 27, 2016 / 9:48 pm

    Really in depth, helpful article – very clear and easy to follow

    • April 28, 2016 / 4:08 pm

      Thank you, I am glad you liked it. It took me a long time go get all the information correct and take the pictures too.

      John.

  4. April 27, 2016 / 9:55 pm

    This is a great tutorial. I really need to start reading up on photography skills so I can start using my “big camera” instead of relying on my phone to take quick snaps. My problem is that my little one moves so fast he always ends up being a blur!
    Alana x

    • April 28, 2016 / 4:07 pm

      Hi Alana, if you have your camera on aperture priority and if you are outside taking pictures of the little one moving about, then you will be able to get some really good photographs. It’s all about practice, practice and practice at the end of the day.

      John

  5. April 28, 2016 / 12:25 am

    Great post john and really educational. I learnt some new things! Angela x

    • April 28, 2016 / 4:03 pm

      Thanks Hon. This post in been in the planning for so long that I had to take my time with this post. As long as people learn from this post, then I am happy.

      John

  6. April 28, 2016 / 12:42 am

    Yay! You finally wrote the post, I am bookmarking so I can apply to my own photography and be better at finding depth of field

    • April 28, 2016 / 4:02 pm

      I am glad you liked the post. There just soo much technical details in this field of photography that you can get caught up in the lingo etc. Trying to explain things in lamens terms is not always easy, as this post has proven. All I can do is ask you to go out and mess with the camera and you will get the desired the results you are looking for. I also wrote this post with you in mind, as I know you asked me sometime ago, about blurring my backgrounds etc.

      John M.

  7. John Adams
    April 28, 2016 / 5:33 am

    Great, instructive post. I’ve been experimenting with aperture and f stops myself after getting a new camera recently. really helpful blog post. #BrilliantBlogPosts

    • April 28, 2016 / 3:53 pm

      Well, if you learned something from this post, then I did what I set out to do. This post has been a long time in the making. I am just glad it is finally out.

      John M.

  8. April 28, 2016 / 9:08 am

    Thanks for this – I want to improve my pictures (if I ever get away from snapping on my phone!) and this is a really useful post.

    Will keep checking back for more!

    Thanks for sharing #BrilliantBlogPosts

    • April 28, 2016 / 3:51 pm

      Well, this is a great way to start. I did this because I have had friend asking me about blurring my backgrounds etc. I am glad you liked the post.

      John M

  9. April 28, 2016 / 2:13 pm

    Great post, your photos look great! Love how you made them blurry 🙂

    • April 28, 2016 / 3:48 pm

      I had to wait until I was a position to demonstrate how Depth of Field works and how your photographs turn out. Rather than using someone elses photographs. I waited until I had a lens which could help me with the post. it is easy and simple when you know how.

      John M

  10. April 28, 2016 / 4:18 pm

    This was such a brilliant read and I think I understand I little more about aperture than I did, but I still have a lot to learn!

    • April 28, 2016 / 6:31 pm

      There is a lot to learn about photography, I had not even about Depth of Field until about 6 months ago. If you learned something from my post, then I did what I set out to do.

      John

  11. April 28, 2016 / 9:25 pm

    This is brilliant John – the 1st explanation that I have been able to understand properly. Will pin for future reference. Been meaning to pick your brains on cameras. I currently have access to a DSLR which I rarely use due to it being huge and complicated opting instead for compact point and shoot which I can take anywhere. Size is really important to me – I have to be able to just chuck it in my bag, but I am finding that I want to do more and more close up photography so am wondering about one of the hybrid cameras – you got any suggestions?

    • April 29, 2016 / 3:50 pm

      Closeup photography is called Macro-photography and it is to do with the lens(es) you have. You need a reasonably good macro lens which can focus in on the details for you. As for Hybrid camera’s, this is new to me. I will need to read up on them. As for DSLR’s they do tend to be big and cumbersome, but I don’t go far without it. I have a 70-300 sigma macro lens. It is available for the Canon DSLR if you have a canon camera. Either way, I will try to help any way I can.

      John M.

  12. April 28, 2016 / 9:42 pm

    Thanks for this really informative post John! We’ll need to practise and follow your examples with our camera

    • April 29, 2016 / 3:37 pm

      Practice makes perfect. Since I got my camera, I have been doing tonnes of photography. Its not the gear but the person behind the camera which counts. I hope you manage to get some photographs.

      John.

  13. Debbie
    April 29, 2016 / 7:01 am

    Hi John, this is perfect for me at the moment. I have so much to learn about using my DSLR camera that sometimes I don’t know where to start. I actually got a little excited whilst reading your post as there were bits I actually understood (well, I think I did) and I’m sure on second read I’ll understand a bit more.

    Will be having a go over the weekend using my camera on the A setting.

    Thank you!

    • April 29, 2016 / 3:05 pm

      I will help in any way I can. Just go out and practice and see what you can do with your camera.

      Good luck and I hope you manage get some great photographs.

      John

  14. Zena's Suitcase
    April 29, 2016 / 2:38 pm

    Really helpful explanation. I’ll be coming back to this post as there is a lot to take in, and I need this stuff to penetrate my little braincells slowly I think

    • April 29, 2016 / 2:50 pm

      There is a lot to take in with this post. I had to write in a way that people would hopefully understand. I hope you be able to understand what I was trying to put across with this post.

      John

  15. Anosa
    April 30, 2016 / 5:03 am

    I am not technical when it comes to gadgets and even worse with cameras, not matter how many times I read it it still passes through me lol

    • May 2, 2016 / 1:46 am

      Photography is one of thing’s which can be interesting or not. Yes, there are a lot of technical details but if you put a lot of time in something, you can gain a lot of rewards. That is why I love my photography.

      John.

  16. April 30, 2016 / 8:50 am

    I really want to do a photography course to learn how to take better photo’s – and read my camera manual lol

    • May 2, 2016 / 1:44 am

      The manual only teaches yo so much, there is no substitute for going out and practising with your camera. Youtube video’s are a good way to learn too.

      John M.

  17. Petite Pudding
    May 1, 2016 / 6:55 pm

    A very helpful post – I really need to work on my photography and will be back to this post to get some ideas, thank you! #brillblogposts

    • May 2, 2016 / 1:42 am

      Thank you for your kind comments. The best way to learn is to go out and practice with your camera. I find there is nothing like actually going out with the camera as a crash course in photography. I hope you manage to learn more about photography, I find it therapeutic.

      John

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